Since this market is expected to be worth ~ $ 10 billion by 2025, there is no reason to believe that this supplement is not here to stay. Upcoming research has suggested that despite many unanswered questions about the effectiveness of use, the safety profile, the ADRV risk, the legal status and even fundamental questions such as: What is a proposed therapeutic dose? Many athletes are the first to adopt CBD and are now routinely using it as part of their recovery strategies. While this is of course a concern for professionals, it is an exciting time for researchers given the importance of the endocannabinoid system and the potential CBD has to communicate with this important but little studied physiological system.
There is still no convincing data that CBD is a human opioid-saving pain reliever. Three long-term studies showed better pain relief, but neuropsychiatric effects contributed to an interruption rate of 23% (13-16). A systematic review of THC / CBD showed no clinically significant benefits for neuropathic pain . Four of these studies evaluated the efficacy of nabiximols and four others reported the use of CBD.
In this review article, the authors have used DSM-5 terminologies for most conditions, except for the revised dust dependence terminology DSM-IV text. In this case, comparable DSM-5 terminology of moderate and severe substance use disorder was used. Background CBD has gained public interest as an antidote to pain, epilepsy, anxiety and nausea (1-4). In the United States, a CBD-based drug has been approved by the FDA, epidiolex, which is indicated for refractory attacks from conditions such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Davet syndrome in a normal dose range of 2.5 to 20 mg / kg twice daily. More often, however, CBD refers to unregulated oil derived from a marijuana plant or hemp plant .
Consequently, CBD was found to improve the damage observed in animal models of neurodegeneration associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, brain iron overload, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Therefore, CBD can be a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention / treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, to fully clarify the potential of CBD as an effective treatment for schizophrenia, large-scale studies with longer periods of CBD treatment are needed. The effects of CBD on receptors on the immune system can help reduce general inflammation in the body.
The antipsychotic, neuroprotective, anxiolytic and calming properties suggest a potential therapeutic role for CBD and nabiximols to treat various psychiatric disorders. The use of CBD at higher doses showed promising results in case studies of schizophrenia and psychosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease, except in cases resistant to treatment. Regarding the use of CBD to treat anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effect can help patients with anxiety related to PTSD and social performance, and nabiximols can reduce anxiety associated with the appearance of tics. There is also favorable evidence in patients with ASD to reduce hyperactivity, self-harm, anxiety and insomnia. Nabiximols showed no credible effect in the treatment of ADHD, while CBD was also ineffective for bipolar disorder. Of all the cases investigated, the strongest evidence was found for the treatment of cannabis-related conditions.
Two open studies analyzing the effectiveness of two different concentrations of CBD (200 mg / day and 600–1200 mg / day) achieved positive results at doses as low as 600 mg / day (Hallak et al. 2010; Pokorski et al. 2017). These studies had a small sample size of eight (Solowij et al., 2018) and 20 (Pokorski et al., 2017) participants. In the first open trial with eight participants, a dose of 600 mg / day was tested and two in five participants completed 7-day hospital treatment. These two participants reported withdrawal from follow-up and the other three participants reported a decrease in cannabis use, confirmed by blood and urine tests. Two in three participants reported withdrawal and otherwise cannabis use had decreased, as confirmed by blood and urine tests.
Nabiximols were used as aerosol at doses ranging from an average of 28.9 aerosols / day (equivalent to 77.5 mg THC or 71.7 mg CBD) to 40 aerosols / day . In studies with CBD alone, the CBD dose varied in divided doses from 200 to 600 mg / day. All three RCTs in this section provided evidence of the use of nabiximols for moderate to severe cannabis use disorder. These studies tested different doses of nabiximols, ranging from THC 21.6 mg and CBD 20 mg to THC 113.4 mg or CBD 105 mg per day. All studies reported lower intake rates, better tolerance and retention rates in the experimental group. In addition, no serious adverse reactions were reported in any of these studies.
Hoch et al. performed an excellent systematic review that summarized four systematic reviews and 14 randomized controlled studies, but did not take into account the evidence for a non-clinical test (Hoch et al. 2019). He recently summarized the clinical findings of 14 studies on psychiatric disorders, but these authors did not provide information on nabiximoles (Mandolini et al. 2018). Unlike the above-mentioned review articles, this article aims to provide a more comprehensive overview hemp products of the use of CBD and CBD-containing compounds, such as nabiximoles, for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. This article extensively discusses the efficacy, safety and psychiatric benefits of compounds containing CBD and CBD . Here we make a clear distinction between the clinical findings for CBD and nabiximoles, since the latter also contains THC To date, 23 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws that allow the use of marijuana for various medical conditions.